By Vincent P. Gutschick
1. useful Biology and Plant Strategies.- A. practical Biology.- B. the necessities on crops of their development and Function.- C. The Abiotic setting: Plant Autecology.- (i) Resources.- (ii)Resource demanding situations confronted by way of Plants.- D. Adaptive Strategies.- (i) application of the Strategic View.- (ii) Explaining variations, in sort and in value, basically in Wild Growth.- (iii) Indicating Routes to Crop Improvement.- (iv) Examples of target capabilities and Adaptations.- E. 4 ideas of Adaptive Strategies.- F. The Calculation of vigorous bills and Benefits.- (i) 3 kinds of Costs.- (ii) How strength expenses impact development and Yield.- (iii) Optimizing the Energetics of a Plant.- G. towards a Quantification of threat and threat Management.- H. whilst and the way speedy to installation Strategies.- I. Effectiveness and boundaries of Strategic Adaptations.- (i) inner and exterior Limitations.- (ii) barriers to Adaptive Strategies.- J. extra Strategic issues for the Biotic Environment.- 2. Mineral Nutrition.- A. crucial parts within the environment and Their Availability to Plants.- (i) lively expenses of buying Nutrients.- (ii) Soil Processes.- B. 4 kinds of Challenges.- (i) Low Nutrient Availability in Soil.- (ii) Physiological barriers on inner shipping and Use.- (iii) critical Imbalances between Nutrients.- (iv) Toxicity of Nonnutrients.- C. effects of dietary Challenges.- (i) common and Ecological Challenges.- (ii) Agricultural Consequences.- D. Adaptive Responses, Their expenditures and Benefits.- (i) Autecological Responses.- (ii) Responses inside of Plant Communities.- three. Photosynthesis.- A. CO2, Photons, and Their Availability to the Plant.- (i) the fundamental Photosynthetic response and Its Constraints.- (ii) CO2 and Water Exchange.- (iii) CO2 and Photon delivery in complete Canopies.- (iv) Measures of Photosynthesis.- (v) internet Determinants of Photosynthesis.- B. strength and Soil source makes use of: expenditures and Benefits.- (i) expenses and merits in Photosynthesis Alone.- (ii) Optimizing Leaf Energetics: An Example.- (iii) Use of Water and Mineral Nutrients.- (iv) Miscellaneous expenditures and Benefits.- C. Challenges.- (i) Low or Erratic Availability of Resources.- (ii) Excesses and Imbalances.- (iii) shipping Limitations.- (iv) Nonresource Challenges.- D. outcomes of demanding situations to Photosynthesis.- (i) Ecological Consequences.- (ii) Agricultural Consequences.- E. Adaptive Responses, Their bills and Benefits.- (i) Responses to Low or Erratic source Availability.- (ii) Responses to Excesses and Imbalances.- (iii) Responses to move Limitations.- (iv) Responses to Nonresource Challenges.- four. Water Relations.- A. Introduction.- (i) Water in Plant constitution and Function.- (ii) Water capability and Terminology.- (iii) Water shipping in Soil.- (iv) Water Uptake by way of Roots.- (v) Water delivery from Roots to Leaves.- (vi) Water intake in Photosynthesis.- (vii) Cost-Benefit Analyses in Water Use.- B. Challenges.- (i) Low or Erratic Availability of Water.- (ii) shipping Limitations.- (iii) extra Water: Flooding.- (iv) Salinity, a Nonresource Hazard.- C. effects of Challenges.- (i) Ecological Consequences.- (ii) Agricultural Consequences.- D. Adaptive thoughts, Their expenditures and Benefits.- (i) recommendations for Low Water Availability.- (ii) options of Salt Tolerance.- (iii) recommendations of Flood Tolerance.- (iv) Responses inside of Ecosystems.- five. Integrative Processes.- A. New positive aspects in long term Coordination of All source Uses.- B. Reproduction.- (i) The Vegetative-to-Reproductive Switch.- (ii) Seeds: Many and Small, or Few and Large?.- (iii) Senescence and source Scavenging.- (iv) Flower and Fruit Abortion.- (v) Pollination.- C. Germination.- D. Morphogenesis, in particular Photomorphogenesis.- E. keep watch over of Biotic Interactions.- (i) Pests and Diseases.- (ii) Symbionts.- (iii) Conspecifics and Their Gene Pool.- References.- Symbols.
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Additional info for A Functional Biology of Crop Plants
An 8% increase in energy cost per unit shoot growth can decrease relative growth rate (RGR) by the same relative amount, in turn reducing the typical 12 mass doublings between seed and mature plant to 11 doublings; thus, the stressed plant is half the size of the unstressed version. Because nitrogen is the dominant mineral nutrient by mass and by energy expenditure, and because it presents the greatest richness of features in energetics, I will use it as an example of energy costing. The generalization to other nutrients should be clear.
The heaviness of the arrows indicates roughly the relative rates of the respective processes, if known. lltlculJIC ~ --------------------------- SEDIME TS I ,: .. hlnh: ~url'll DEEP CRUST A D MANTLe Without extruding these ions into the soil or internally neutralizing them, plant tissue would soon reach extremes of pH beyond all viability. Schemes for dealing with the H+ and OH- ions are indicated in Fig. 3. In a steady state, plant death and decay reverses the cycle and no net pH change occurs in the cycle.
O. 23) The derivative ab,;aSj includes, of course, the derivative of the cost as well as of the performance or gross benefit. Increased RA makes a leaf costlier per COz captured. Similarly, an increase in LA! must be evaluated for its demand for extra root mass and stern hydraulic conductivity, and for its effect on soil water use and depletion. Optimizing the energetics alone is often very near the full optimization, if by energetics we mean that of final yield where we must account for longterm trade-offs of principle 2.
A Functional Biology of Crop Plants by Vincent P. Gutschick