By Caroline Moorehead
They have been academics, scholars, chemists, writers, and housewives; a singer on the Paris Opera, a midwife, a dental health care provider. They allotted anti-Nazi leaflets, published subversive newspapers, concealed resisters, secreted Jews to protection, transported guns, and conveyed clandestine messages. The youngest was once a schoolgirl of fifteen who scrawled "V" for victory at the partitions of her lycÉe; the eldest, a farmer's spouse in her sixties who harbored escaped Allied airmen. Strangers to one another, hailing from villages and towns from throughout France, those courageous ladies have been united in hatred and defiance in their Nazi occupiers.
finally, the Gestapo hunted down 230 of those ladies and imprisoned them in a fortress open air Paris. Separated from domestic and family, those disparate participants grew to become to each other, their universal adventure conquering divisions of age, schooling, career, and sophistication, as they discovered solace and energy of their deep affection and camaraderie.
In January 1943, they have been despatched to their ultimate vacation spot: Auschwitz. purely forty-nine may go back to France.
A educate in Winter attracts on interviews with those ladies and their households; German, French, and varnish documents; and records held through global struggle II resistance businesses to discover a depressing bankruptcy of background that provides an inspiring portrait of normal humans, of bravery and survival—and of the notable, enduring strength of girl friendship.
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Additional resources for A Train in Winter: An Extraordinary Story of Women, Friendship, and Resistance in Occupied France
Nationalism and National Socialism To examine the relationship between nationalism and National Socialism is to venture into a field of historical research fraught with problems. Given the background of the unparalleled dimensions of German barbarity during the Second World War and the international debates that continue to rage over the place in history of the crimes of the Wehrmacht, the ongoing interest in the history of the effects of nationalism, racism, and anti-Semitism is natural, so a history of nationalism in the Second World War cannot help presenting a number of historical and political-cum-moral problems.
Order police', the regular, uniformed law-enforcement police Senior official of an administrative district Sipo (Sichtrhtitspoliui) Vo/k (adj. voikisch) Volksgtmtinschaft Volksgtnosst Lit. 'Security police', consisting of the Kripo (criminal investigation police) and Gtstapo (secret state police) Lit. 'people' or 'nation'; the nationalistic, vo/kisch movement of the early years of the twentieth century presented the Volk as a mystical whole made up of the Aryan peoples of Germany. In the Nazi idiom it had connotations of racial purity in a society rooted in the German soil and bloodline 'National community', the Nazi utopia of a racially pure, classless, and hierarchically organized society in which individual interests were surrendered to those of the nation 'National comrade', a member of the (pI.
Towards the end of the war these matched less and less with what people had been told to expect, so that even the best entertainment would have had scarcely any mobilizing effect. Next, two dimensions of direct propaganda are focused on: anti-Semitism, and interpreting the course the war was taking. The racist dimension of the propaganda during the 'war on two fronts' is dealt with by Jeffrey Herf. The war was not least a 'war against the Jews'. How did the Nazi leadership want this to be understood?
A Train in Winter: An Extraordinary Story of Women, Friendship, and Resistance in Occupied France by Caroline Moorehead