By Philip C. Withers, Christine E. Cooper (auth.), Carlos Arturo Navas, José Eduardo Carvalho (eds.)
Numerous animal species stay in environments characterised via a seasonal aid within the availability of water, which regularly yet no longer continuously happens whilst temperatures are optimum. for lots of such animals, survival through the hardest season calls for spending lengthy classes of time in a slightly inactive nation referred to as aestivation. yet aestivation is far greater than final inactive. winning aestivation calls for the choice of a formal microhabitat, variable levels of metabolic arrest and responsiveness to exterior stimuli, the power to experience the right kind time of yr for emergence, the upkeep of inactive tissue, and masses extra. So, aestivation contains a posh number of behaviors, ecological institutions and physiological changes that modify throughout species of their kind, importance and path. This booklet seeks to discover the phenomenon of aestivation from varied views and degrees of association, starting from microhabitat choice to genetic regulate of physiological changes. It brings jointly authors from the world over engaged on various systematic teams, methods, and questions, yet who're all finally operating to higher comprehend the complicated factor of aestivation.
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Extra resources for Aestivation: Molecular and Physiological Aspects
Storey high and low phosphate forms of the enzymes were separated by isoelectric focusing and showed different kinetic properties (Cowan and Storey 1999). The proportions of low phosphate PK and PFK increased during aestivation and kinetic analysis showed that these were the less active forms. Both aestivation and anoxia also suppressed maximal activities and altered kinetic properties of PK and PFK in foot muscle and mantle of land snails, Otala lactea (Whitwam and Storey 1990, 1991). Furthermore, in vitro incubations that stimulated cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), or Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (PKC) altered the properties of PK and PFK from control snails in a manner that mimicked the effects of aestivation/anoxia but did not affect the enzymes in extracts from aestivating snails.
The same mechanism is seen in other hypometabolic systems including hibernating mammals and diapausing insects (MacDonald and Storey 1999; McMullen and Storey 2008). During aestivation in O. lactea, the maximum activities of both enzymes decreased by 33–50% in muscle and hepatopancreas, although Western blotting showed no change in the amounts of enzyme protein. ATP values were 40% and 30% higher for Na+K+ATPase and SERCA (Ramnanan and Storey 2006b, 2008). Foot muscle Na+K+-ATPase from aestivated snails also showed reduced affinity for Na+ (Km for Na+ rose by 80%) and for Mg2+ as an activator (Ka for Mg2+ increased by 60%) and Km Ca2+ of foot muscle SERCA doubled in aestivating animals.
A broader role for RPP was appreciated when it was shown that other enzymes of carbohydrate catabolism were similarly controlled under anoxia. Finally, the global role of RPP in metabolic rate depression was demonstrated when studies showed that (a) glycolytic rate depression was mediated by RPP in multiple states of hypometabolism including aerobic systems of snail aestivation and mammalian hibernation, and (b) that RPP regulated and coordinated many other metabolic functions when animals entered hypometabolism (Storey 2002; Storey and Storey 1990, 2004, 2007).
Aestivation: Molecular and Physiological Aspects by Philip C. Withers, Christine E. Cooper (auth.), Carlos Arturo Navas, José Eduardo Carvalho (eds.)