By C. A. Edwards
Till the Nineteen Eighties, worldwide raises in nutrients creation passed the concomitant progress of human populations. even if, gradually agriculture is turning into not able to fulfill the world-wide consistent with capita wishes for meals. except there's significant overseas cooperation in addressing the issues linked to inhabitants keep an eye on, it really is anticipated that the worldwide human inhabitants will achieve greater than 14 billion via the yr 2050, with provision of enough nutrition, gas and area for such an elevated inhabitants unachievable. those difficulties are accentuated by way of elements resembling world-wide rate reductions in soil fertility, the accelerating degradation of land that's appropriate for meals construction via soil erosion, the world-wide pattern for migration of human populations from rural habitats to towns and very speedy premiums of worldwide deforestation. attainable ideas to worldwide sustainability in agriculture and normal assets needs to contain an integration of ecological, sociological, cultural, and financial concerns, in addition to mandated foreign and nationwide rules. This booklet outlines those difficulties and makes an attempt to hunt recommendations.
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Additional info for Agriculture and the environment: papers presented at the International Conference on Agriculture and the Environment, 1991
0 (FAO, 1981) Fig. 3. Response of grain crops to fertilizer additions for maize, rice, wheat, and all combined (FAO, 1981 ). 0 H MAIZE, RICE AND WHEAT YIELD VS. FERTILIZER YIELD VS. FERTILIZER USE OF THE TWELVE LARGEST WHEAT PRODUCERS IN THE WORLD (CIRCA 1977) (FAO 1981) '< FERTILIZER USE (KG / HA) 200 I 2 O (FAO,1981) 1 YIELD VS. FERTILIZER USE IN MAJOR RICE PRODUCING COUNTRIES, 1 9 7 7 FERTILIZER USE (KG / HA) 100 YIELD VS. S. P. 0 (occasionally more) tons of grain per hectare per year. e. beans) are lower yielding, as are most vegetables and of course animal yields are much less • One can feed from two to 20 people per hectare per year, assuming the people eat only grain.
S. P. Hall / Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 46 (1993) 1-30 Fig. 5. Final frame of computer simulation of agricultural development in Costa Rica as presented at this Conference. The central picture represents undisturbed forest (dark) versus agriculture and pasture (lighter). The initial frame, for 1940, showed 67% forest. The final frame (held constant since 1983) showed 17% forest. The small graphs around the margin show important variables from 1940 to 2024. Empirical data are used to 1990 ('5' on graphs) and then a simulation is run that attempts to maximize food production.
G. gasoline and home-heating oil). The fuel/GNP ratio is very sensitive to this factor in that a 1% change in this factor will produce about a 15% change in GNP. This factor accounts for 24% of the variation in the US energy/GNP ratio between 1929 and 1983 (Hall et al, 1986). This ratio declined sharply during periods of decline in household fuel purchases (1941-1945 and 1973-1984). , 1986). This is true of other countries (Kaufmann, 1992). , 1986; Kaufmann, 1992). This was the second most powerful explanatory factor in the decreasing fuel/real GNP ratio found by Kaufmann.
Agriculture and the environment: papers presented at the International Conference on Agriculture and the Environment, 1991 by C. A. Edwards