By Arvin Mosier, J. Keith Syers, John R. Freney
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Additional info for Agriculture and the Nitrogen Cycle: Assessing the Impacts of Fertilizer Use on Food Production and the Environment (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) Series, Volume 65)
B. Howarth, P. A. Matson, K. Minami, R. Naylor, K. N. Weeks, and Z. L. Zhu. 2002. Policy implications of human-accelerated nitrogen cycling. Pp. 477–516 in The nitrogen cycle at regional to global scales, edited by E. W. Boyer and R. W. Howarth. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Raun, W. , and G. V. Johnson. 1999. Improving nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. Agronomy Journal 91:357–363. Smil, V. 1999. Nitrogen in crop production: An account of global flows. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 13:647–662.
Zhu. 1996. Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences. Biogeochemistry 35:75–139. Hubbell, D. H. 1995. Extension of symbiotic biological nitrogen fixation technology in developing countries. Fertilizer Research 42:231–239. IFA/FAO. 2001. Global estimates of gaseous emissions of NH3, NO and N2O from agricultural land. Rome: FAO. , and M. H. Golden. 2000. A re-evaluation of the beneficial and other effects of dietary nitrate.
The other 50 percent is mostly dissipated in the wider environment, causing a number of environmental and ecologic side effects (Galloway and Cowling 2002). These N losses are an economic loss to farmers, especially for smallholders in Africa, where fertilizer costs represent a large fraction of the total costs and where increases in food production are urgently needed (Sanchez and Jama 2002). Clearly, significant improvements must be made in N use efficiency (NUE) to produce enough food to feed the growing population and avoid large-scale degradation of ecosystems caused by excess N (Tilman et al.
Agriculture and the Nitrogen Cycle: Assessing the Impacts of Fertilizer Use on Food Production and the Environment (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) Series, Volume 65) by Arvin Mosier, J. Keith Syers, John R. Freney